#### In Tensorflow how can I (1) compute gradients and (2) update variables in *separate* @tf.function methods?

I need to compute `tf.Variable` gradients in a class method, but use those gradients to update the variables at a later time, in a different method. I can do this when not using the `@tf.function` decorator, but I get the `TypeError: An op outside of the function building code is being passed a "Graph" tensor` error when using `@tf.function`. I’ve searched for understanding on this error and how to resolve it, but have come up short.

Just FYI if you’re curious, I want to do this because I have variables that are in numerous different equations. Rather than trying to create a single equation that relates all the variables, it is easier (less computationally costly) to keep them separate, compute the gradients at a moment in time for each of those equations, and then incrementally apply the updates. I recognize that these two approaches are not mathematically identical.

Here is my code (a minimal example), followed by the results and error message. Note that when gradients are computed and used to update variables in a single method, `.iterate()`, there is no error.

``````import tensorflow as tf

class Example():
def __init__(self, x, y, target, lr=0.01):
self.x = x
self.y = y
self.target = target
self.lr = lr
self.variables = [self.x, self.y]

@tf.function
def iterate(self):
loss = (self.target - self.x * self.y)**2

for g, v in zip(self.gradients, self.variables):

@tf.function
def compute_update(self):
loss = (self.target - self.x * self.y)**2

@tf.function
def apply_update(self):
for g, v in zip(self.gradients, self.variables):

x = tf.Variable(1.)
y = tf.Variable(3.)
target = tf.Variable(5.)

example = Example(x, y, target)

# Compute and apply updates in a single tf.function method
example.iterate()
print('')
print(example.variables)
print('')

# Compute and apply updates in separate tf.function methods
example.compute_update()
example.apply_update()
print('')
print(example.variables)
print('')
``````

The output:

``````\$ python temp_bug.py

[<tf.Variable 'Variable:0' shape=() dtype=float32, numpy=1.12>, <tf.Variable 'Variable:0' shape=() dtype=float32, numpy=3.04>]

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "temp_bug.py", line 47, in <module>
example.apply_update()
File "/home/mroos/.local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py", line 580, in __call__
result = self._call(*args, **kwds)
File "/home/mroos/.local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/def_function.py", line 650, in _call
return self._concrete_stateful_fn._filtered_call(canon_args, canon_kwds)  # pylint: disable=protected-access
File "/home/mroos/.local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py", line 1665, in _filtered_call
self.captured_inputs)
File "/home/mroos/.local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py", line 1746, in _call_flat
ctx, args, cancellation_manager=cancellation_manager))
File "/home/mroos/.local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/function.py", line 598, in call
ctx=ctx)
File "/home/mroos/.local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/execute.py", line 75, in quick_execute
raise e
File "/home/mroos/.local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/eager/execute.py", line 60, in quick_execute
inputs, attrs, num_outputs)
TypeError: An op outside of the function building code is being passed
a "Graph" tensor. It is possible to have Graph tensors
leak out of the function building context by including a
tf.init_scope in your function building code.
For example, the following function will fail:
@tf.function
def has_init_scope():
my_constant = tf.constant(1.)
with tf.init_scope():