#### Scaling error and Information cirteria in lmfit

I am using lmfit for solving a non-linear optimization problem. It works fine to the point where I am trying to implement the standard deviation of the dependent variable y (sigma y) as a measurement error. My problem is, that I cannot interpret the Information criteria properly. When implementing the return (model – y)/(sigma_y) they just raise from really low to very high values.

i.e. [left: `return (model - y)` -weighting-> right: `return (model - y)/(sigma_y)`]:

My guess is, that this is somehow connected to bad usage of lmfit (wrong calculation of Information criteria, bad error scaling) or to a general lack of understanding these criteria (to me reduced chi-square of 5.258 (under-estimated) or 1.776e-4 (over-estimated) sounds like a really poor fit, but the plot of residuals etc. looks okay for me…)

Here is my example code that reproduces the problem:

``````import lmfit
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

y = np.array([1.42774324, 1.45919099, 1.58891696, 1.78432768, 1.97403125,
2.17091161, 2.02065766, 1.83449279, 1.64412613, 1.47265405,
1.4507    ])
sigma_y = np.array([0.00312633, 0.00391546, 0.00873894, 0.01252675, 0.00639111,
0.00452488, 0.0050566 , 0.01127185, 0.01081748, 0.00227587,
0.00190191])
x = np.array([0.02372331, 0.07251188, 0.50685822, 1.30761963, 2.10535442,
2.90597497, 2.30733552, 1.50906939, 0.7098041 , 0.09580686,
0.04777082])
offset = np.array([1.18151707, 1.1815602 , 1.18202847, 1.18187962, 1.18047493,
1.17903493, 1.17962602, 1.18141625, 1.18216907, 1.18222051,
1.18238949])
parameter = lmfit.Parameters()
parameter.add('par_1', value = 1e-5)
parameter.add('par_2', value = 0.18)

def U_reg(parameter, x, offset):
par_1 = parameter['par_1']
par_2 = parameter['par_2']
model = offset + 0.03043211217 * np.arcsinh(x / (2 * par_1)) + par_2 * x
return (model - y)/(sigma_y)

mini = lmfit.Minimizer(U_reg, parameter, fcn_args=(x, offset), nan_policy='omit', scale_covar=True)
regr1 = mini.minimize(method='least_sq') #Levenberg-Marquardt
print("Levenberg-Marquardt:")
print(lmfit.fit_report(regr1, min_correl=0.9))

def U_plot(parameter, i_dens, U_oc):
par_1 = parameter['par_1']
par_2 = parameter['par_2']
model = offset + 0.03043211217 * np.arcsinh(x / (2 * par_1)) + par_2 * x
return model - y

plt.title("Model vs Data")
plt.plot(x, y, 'b')
plt.plot(x, U_plot(regr1.params, x, y) + y, 'r--', label='Levenberg-Marquardt')
plt.ylabel("y")
plt.xlabel("x")
plt.legend(loc='best')
plt.show()
``````

I know that it might be more convient to implement weighting via `lmfit.Model`, due to multiple regressors I want to keep the `lmfit.Minimizer` method. My python version is 3.8.5, lmfit is 1.0.2

Source: Python Questions